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ヤハウェとエル・シャダイ

具にも付かない思い付きを一つ。

旧約聖書において、神の名前はさまざまに表現されている。アブラハムにあらわれた神は「エル・シャダイ」。

「エル」は神を現す一般名詞として古代カナン地方で使われていた言葉である。したがって、シャダイの部分の意味によって、何の神であるかが示される。この「エル・シャダイ」は一般的には「全能の神」と訳されるのだが、「シャダイ」の意味はいまひとつ明確ではない。「力強い」「山」「乳房」などという解説をWeb上で見かける。「乳房」は一般に古代の豊穣、生命力のシンボルであるし、いろいろ考えて山とか力強さに繋がらなくもない。であれば「全能の」という訳にも一応の根拠があるということか。

さて、問題は「ヤハウェ」だ。この神名は出エジプト記において現れる。シナイ山において、モーゼの前に現れた神は、自分がかつてアブラハムの神、イサクの神として知られたものであるとして、新たにその名を「ありてあるもの」であると告げる。YHWHという綴りで表記されるそれは、当時の発音が忘れられて久しいが、おそらくヤハウェというものであったと言われている。

気になるのは、ヤハウェがきわめて排他的な神であることだ。それ以前の神は他の神を意識してはいないが、ヤハウェは明確に他の神をあがめることを禁止している。

僕には、ユダヤ教の根本思想である唯一絶対神というものが、ここで初めて導入されたように思える。そう考えると、わざわざ「アブラハムの神、イサクの神である」というような事をのべていることが怪しく感じられてくる。モーゼが持ってきた新しい神を、イスラエル部族の伝統神と一致させる工作だったのではないか?一説には、イスラエルの一神教はエジプトのアクナテンが開いて一代で潰れたアテン神信仰のパクリという話もある。それはなんか眉唾っぽいけど、なんかモーゼは一人でいろいろやりすぎって感じがする。そもそもそれ以前から唯一の神を信じていた連中が、モーゼが目を離したとたんに金の牛なんぞを作ってあがめだすものだろうか。そのころまで、ユダヤ人たちはエジプトやカナンのさまざまな神を「あるもの」として認めていたのではないだろうか。アブラハムの神、イサクの神、ヤコブの神という呼び名自体、それぞれの部族が自分の祖先を主張し、それぞれの守護神を持っていた名残ではないのだろうか。それらが部族連合を形成する過程で次第に統合され、最終的にヤハウェという神名のもとに唯一絶対化したと考えるととてもすっきりするのだが…

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